Trends and Roles Resources Cited in Reflections:

Bledsoe, T.; Baskin, J. (2014) Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom, College Teaching, 62:1, 32-41, DOI: 10.1080/87567555.2013.831022 – Recognizing Student Fear – The Elephant in the Classroom

English, A.; Stengel, B. (2010)  Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey and Freire on Fear and Learning, Educational Theory. Vol. 60 Issue 5, p521-542. 22p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2010.00375.x.  – Exploring Fear Rousseau Dewey and Freire

Jennings, C. (2013, March 28) Charles Jennings – The Four Ways Adults Learn: Learning Technologies 2013 .  Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Kavanagh, J. (2013,March 28) Adult Learning Techniques – Part 1 .  Retrieved April 3, 2015 from

Kerka, S. (2002). Trauma and Adult Learning. ERIC Digest, 239. doi:10.1002/ace

Perry, B. (2006). Fear and Learning: Trauma-Related Factors in the Adult Education Process. Wiley InterScience, 110, 21-27. Retrieved April 5, 2015, from http://www.interscience.wiley.comFear and Learning – Trauma-Related Factors in the Adult Education Process

Rubensen, K., Desjardins, R., Yoon, E. (2007), International Literacy Survey, Adult Learning in Canada: A Comparative Perspective Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (Catalogue no. 89-552-MIE — No.17) Ottawa, ON. Statistics Canada, Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics Division. Retrieved April 11, 2015 from

Sapolsky, R. (2004). Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers (Third ed.). New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Websites of Interest:

15 Common Cognitive Distortions – gives some insight into the thoughts some students may be cycling through when trying to learn –

How to Fix Cognitive Distortions – it’s not a quick fix, but here are some suggestions for those who struggle with cognitive distortions (aka “stinking thinking”) –

A shorter, but equally fascinating summary of fear in the classroom (based on Bledscoe’s article listed above)

A easy-to-read post about the changing role of the teacher from a content delivery vehicle to so much more…Teaching is Dead, Long Live the Teacher –

A open textbook called “Teaching in the Digital Age”, by Tony Bates.  Updated as recently as April 2015.

Trends and Directions in On-Line Learning – a fantastic array of articles posted on the site of the Ontario Online Learning Portal for Faculty and Instructors   –

Lesson Planning Resources

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Craft Good Questions [Motion picture]. (n.d.). Canada: Humber, The Centre for Teaching and Learning, Professional Development.  Retrieved May 3, 2015 from

This short video outlines the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy from the perspective of the types of questions one would ask based on each of the levels. What is particularly excellent about this clip is it uses a scenario to teach me how to ladder my questions so the information I elicit from my students increases in complexity and I can check for understanding, not just of the theoretical concept I taught, but of the student’s ability to apply the theory in increasingly advanced and creative ways.

Characteristics of Adult Learners

Kuhne, G. (n.d.). 10 Characteristics of Adults as Learners. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from

This article provides a list of ten characteristics which differentiate adult learners from youth and provides a short summary on each. I chose this article because in addition to listing these differences, it outlines the implications of each. This will improve my instruction by showing me what factors to take into consideration when planning lessons and managing classroom dynamics.

Creating a Positive Learning Environment

Taylor, A. (n.d.). Creating a Positive Learning Environment – Laugh and Learn. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from Resources/01 Laugh and Learn-B.pdf

Berk, R. (2002). Humor as an Instructional Defibrillator – Evidence-Based Techniques in Teaching and Assessment (Vol. 1). Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Using humour in the classroom is a skill I employ naturally and have received positive feedback about, but until recently I wasn’t aware of the many benefits of its use. I’m presently reading a book, Humor as Instructional Defibrillator, and the research on how humor improves the teacher-learner connection, increases student responsiveness, test performance and even student attendance is compelling. The short handout from Humber I have referenced is in alignment with the findings in the book and gives me specific techniques that will enhance the learning environment and student experience.
Pino James, N., PhD. (2015, December 11). Golden Rules for Engaging Students in Learning Activities. Retrieved April 13, 2016, from

If you’re looking for ways to engage your students in their learning activities, this article has some great suggestions.

Motivational Techniques

Wlodkowski, R., & Galbraith, M. (2004). Chapter 7 – Creating Motivating Learning Environments. In Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction (3rd ed., pp. 141-164). Malabar: Krieger Publishing Company.  Retrieval April 27, 2015, from

Dr. Wlodkowski outlines the model “Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching”, designed to tap into each student’s intrinsic motivation by: establishing inclusion, developing attitude, enhancing meaning and engendering competence. This article deconstructs a complex topic and provides a sample instructional plan which shows how I can apply it. Most importantly, it reminds me that students must feel safe in order to make mistakes and it is through these mistakes their greatest learning occurs. One of my primary roles in creating a motivating learning environment is to cultivate a culture of safety for my students.


Navarete, C., Wilde, J., Nelson, C., Martinez, R., & Hargett, G. (1988). Informal Assessment in Educational Evaluation: Implications for Bilingual Education Programs. NCBE Program Information Guide Series, Summer 1990(3), 1-14. Retrieved April 20, 2015, from

This page provides a definition of informal assessment and differentiates between unstructured and structured assessment techniques.  The appeal of this article is it gives strategies to enable students to participate actively in the evaluation process while enabling me to assess the effectiveness of my teaching. In particular, I intend to incorporate periodic questionnaires into my classes so I can hear from students how well they think they are doing as well as which areas they need more guidance/assistance in.